We’re Waiting for You!

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Stay tuned for more on face-i-tecture, and how faces+’eyes’-make-places, this fall!

Ann + Janice

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Five Big Ideas for Designing Today’s Cities

Genetics of Design collaborated with Tufts University on the five big ideas presented here in this week’s TuftsNow and at the Ux+Design conference in April.

Screen Shot 2019-10-22 at 12.56.25 PMToo fun! Collaboration’s key. More info here: https://now.tufts.edu/articles/five-big-ideas-designing-today-s-cities

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“Your Brain on Glassy Skyscrapers” continued…

Last month Hacker News made our recent post on Boston’s new glassy Seaport district and its disappointing design their top story. That sent over 5,000 readers to GeneticsofDesign.com from over 100 countries in under two hours!

Given the broad international interest, we decided to show more images that drive home the key point: it’s very difficult for the human brain to take in big, blank, glassy, boxy buildings. It’s simply not what we evolved to do. That’s something architects, developers, community leaders, and the general public need to know if we want to make memorable places, ones where people feel happy and healthy, and at their best.

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Above are more images from Boston’s newest business neighborhood, the Seaport District, sitting between the city’s airport and financial district. Using 3M’s VAS (Visual Attention Software), which predicts where people look in the first 3-to-5-seconds — before conscious thinking comes online — you quickly ‘see’ how your brain’s hard-wired to ignore the big, blank sheets of glass! The brain doesn’t direct your eyes there – so they don’t go, thus rendering the buildings essentially irrelevant! Remember, you can’t make happy thoughts and memories around places your brain directed your visual system not to take in!

Images at top left show heat maps which glowing brightest where people look most, are reddest around the details in the photos, the bicycle and lamppost and its shadow -not around the looming architecture behind which is shrouded in black: ignored! We can also see how the visual fixation sequence (middle images) focuses on these details and how they’re highlighted, encircled in red, as the prime regions of interest, garnering 76%-to-98% of viewers visual attention first.

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And what’s true up-close, holds true, further out. Here is another view, pulled back, of the Seaport, showing the Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA) and neighboring glass tower. Again note how the glass block’s ignored, not much attention paid to the ICA either – it’s the contrasting white playground elements in a park that draw the eye.

Again, reiterating a theme in this blog, we discover how our ancient brain architecture, including how we’re hardwired to seek out faces and discrete areas of contrast, directs our experience of the modern built environment, and in fact, sets parameters for its design. When we ignore this ancient brain architecture, we all pay a price, creating places that are actually non-places, stressful for humans to see and be in, that belie our humanity, both today and into the future.

all photos ©geneticsofdesign.com

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Summer Meet-Up: More on Buildings, Biology + Biometrics, August 19, 6:30 PM, in Boston

Come learn about how buildings impact our biology. We will continue the conversation from the Ux+Design/2019 conference and our June follow-up meeting (photo below), embracing common goals to:

  • Improve the way buildings are designed
  • Incorporate foundations in science (psychology and human perception)
  • Leverage innate human ‘unconscious’ responses to patterns in nature.

Next Open Meeting – Monday, August 19th, 6:30-8:30 pm, All invited.

Where: Perkins Eastman, 20 Ashburton Place, Boston, 8th Floor*

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We will break into groups to discuss:

  • Research funding
  • Partnerships with schools, firms, foundations, hospitals
  • Creating awards, accreditation
  • Educating architects with CEU articles, podcasts, etc.
  • Future meet-up opportunities
  • Your thoughts

For a creative, thoughtful evening, come-by. There’ll be snacks! Bring your curiosity!

Please RSVP by emailing: Jess Charlap, j.charlap@perkinseastman.com +/or Ann Sussman, annsmail4@gmail.com

The idea board after our last session, June 30th:

Screen Shot 2019-08-11 at 8.31.11 PM*Entry Logistics: After arriving at Perkins Eastman, call 609-649-2388 for access to 8th floor!

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Your Brain on Streets: The Secret Revealed, How Car-centric Development Keeps You Off Your Feet!

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Quick, which suburban street catches your eye? Where do you think you’ll likely find people walking on a street? The subdivision at left, or the one at right, with houses close-in?

If you said, the street with denser residences – at right, you’re right!

A quick analysis with 3M’s VAS (Visual Attention Software), prepared with Justin B. Hollander at Tufts, predicts how your brain subliminally takes in a scene, and suggests why.

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Here we see the visual sequence the brain likely follows as it takes in the scene at a glance, within 3-to-5 seconds, that’s before conscious thinking comes online. Note how the street at left, a typical U.S-car-centric subdivision, directs viewers to look straight ahead and then skyward towards the trees. It all makes sense when you think about it; this is the optimal view for a car driver, pre-occupied with getting somewhere fast, wanting to focus straight out ahead.

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The housing, at right, however, makes the viewer focus along the street and broadly at edge conditions. The regions of interest (ROIs) diagrams, outlined in red above, shows where viewers are likely to look (79-85% of them) and how the nearby houses with porches and columns grab the eye. This is distinctly different than the typical suburb where the view down the road – not the sides – gets attention.

And that’s the secret – revealed! – on how car-centric design so successfully keeps people off their feet – even on streets with sidewalks! The typical American subdivision, prioritizes the driver’s view, keeps them focused straight in front and does not provide the diverse, close-in, edge conditions the walker needs to find pre-attentively, or unconsciously, to most easily move forward. Walking on two feet, turns out to be hugely complicated for a mammal, and is most easily done with automaticity, or without having to put much conscious thought into it. And so, streets that provide requisite, at-grade visual sequencing, promote walking, while car-centric subdivisions, featuring the distant view, simply can’t. Your brain, not seeing a consistent close-in edge on the typical suburban street, won’t consider walking, and doesn’t let you imagine it either. And, people don’t!

And, why should this matter? Because, we need to walk. It’s what we’re built to do. For health and well-being, walking’s actually ‘a superpower‘, according to this recent article in the Guardian; it makes us “healthier, happier and brainier.” Something, sitting in a car, no matter how much it may move us, can never do. So, let’s get going, keep putting one foot in front of the other, and build places that naturally make that happen! Future generations will thank us.


Animated sequence of a human male walking by EadweardMuybridge, Plate 2, 1887, Animation by Jjkutch2013-07-08.

Research referenced above from the 2018-2019 study, Seeing the ‘Unseen’ at Emerson Green, Devens, MA and Beyondsupported by the Devens Enterprise Commission with Justin B. Hollander, Tufts University.

Thanks to CNU Public Square for sharing this post.

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How Boston’s Glassy Seaport Fails + Why It Always Will!

A recent article in the Boston Globe Magazine, 15 Things to Love and 11 Things to Loathe about Boston, labels the newest glassy section of the city “soulless” something people “loathe,” calling Boston’s Seaport District a “bland cityscape, a tract of straight lines, hard surfaces, and glass boxes.” A harsh critique, but there’s now science to back it up.

Screen Shot 2019-07-27 at 11.09.56 AMWhen the neighborhood first rose on a stretch of industrial waterfront, signs were promising,” writes journalist Joanna Weiss. “Then the towers popped up like Monopoly motels. Now, much of the time, you’d never even know you were near the sea.”

This newest part of Boston simply doesn’t work as an example of place-making people feel good about and want to have in their city.

Why? A quick biometric analysis reveals intriguing answers, suggesting a key reason the district is loathed.

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It turns out that the new glassy exteriors, whether boxy or round, are really tough on the brain—difficult for it to take in. In fact, our ancient brain architecture, directing our experience of the built environment, tells our eyes not to focus or even think of moving toward those buildings!

Need proof? Look at the image above made with 3M’s VAS (Visual Attention Software). It predicts where people will look in the first 3-to-5-seconds during pre-attentive processing—before conscious thinking comes online. The red regions (Regions of Interest, or ROIs) indicate that 98% of viewers will look beyond the buildings while 54- 64% of viewers (the yellow ROIs) will also focus on trees and clouds during the same time period.

Our brain subliminally directs us to ignore the new Seaport buildings! They are ‘avoidant’ structures from the brain’s perspective.

The heat map below, glowing reddest where people look most, fading to black in areas ignored, displays the same findings more graphically. Note how all the new towers are shrouded in black—indicating how our brain unconsciously moves us not to focus on them. Overcoming this pre-attentive input, which creates the foundation for all our human perception, emotional experience and behavior that follows, is enormously difficult—if not impossible.

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In sum, we see here, how a single biometric tool reveals why the new Seaport can’t create a sense of place in Boston. Mother Nature, the architect of our perception, with a good 3.8 billion years of design experience, won’t allow it.  We simply will not connect to a place she informs us isn’t there or worth looking at!

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It’s equally instructive to see how the older parts of the Seaport (above) original 19th-C commercial buildings on Seaport Boulevard, for instance, fit well within the city. Biometrics reveal the brain directing us to fixate on them, so they help locate us in space and make us feel in a place.

Conclusion? Not only is it ‘not nice to fool Mother Nature‘ as the old commercial used to say, but it’s extremely difficult! And all Bostonians, residents and visitors alike, pay a steep price when we try to.


Thanks to Hacker News for making this their top story on August 5, 2019.

Thanks to ArchNewsNow.com for linking to this post, October 8, 2019.

all images ©geneticsofdesign.com

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Strong Towns Podcast: “Why We Should Build Cities for our Unconscious Brains”

“How neurotic have we become as a society by living in places that are largely incoherent to our primordial wiring? How difficult is it for us to exist, as humans, in places that kind of undermine everything our body is wired to want in terms of human habitat?”

                                                                                                        — Charles Marohn

Screen Shot 2019-07-22 at 11.07.42 PMThrilled to take part with Chuck Marohn, president of StrongTowns.org, in this podcast revealing the ‘secret sauce’ for successful design – and how it all starts ‘unconsciously’ right within us!

Click on image (of Stroget Street, central Copenhagen) to read and hear more.


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Why Eye-track Boston City Hall? To ‘See’ Evolution at Work!

Eye-tracking Boston City Hall is fascinating and instructive not only because it shows us how ‘avoidant‘ the building is – how the brain directs the eyes not to look at the building in the first 3-to-5 seconds, before ‘conscious’ thinking can come online –  but also because it shows us how the ‘reality’ we ‘see’ is a construct, a representation made by the interaction of our eyes and ancient brain.

The research suggests that since our brain is this evolutionary relic from the pleistocene age, – it hasn’t changed in 35,000 years or more – certain architectural forms are always easier to look at and take in, including the bi-lateral symmetry, rounded forms and clear tripartite hierarchy of Boston’s old State House (below right) versus the harsh repetitive parallel lines and hard-to-find-front-door of City Hall (below left).

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Essentially, the study indicates how forms that occur in nature are always easier on the brain, an artifact of nature, to look at and fixate on, than forms that do not naturally occur like rigidly repetitive, mechanically-generated, parallel lines. And this all makes sense, once you think about it! Boston City Hall stresses the brain, it’s not natural, so the brain, intent on promoting our survival, instantly directs us to stay away!

To learn more, read results from our first eye-tracking study of Boston City Hall here: Eye-Tracking Boston City Hall to Better Understand Human Perception and the Architectural Experience, published this month in the peer-reviewed New Design Ideas journal.

Also available below (press text):

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An earlier version of this study appeared in Genetics of Design, last year, here.

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Why eye-track the Mona Lisa? To see your brain at work!

Humans are pattern recognition experts. And looking at Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa (c. 1503) below, listed as the world’s most viewed painting,  is a good way to see the pattern we’re most cut out to see. It’s the face, of course!

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Some 8 million people each year elbow their way to Room 711 on the Louvre Museum’s first floor in Paris to make eye-contact with her. And according to the biometric analysis above, 85% of them will focus on her face immediately – without even thinking about it. The images above, from 3M’s Visual Attention Software (VAS), show a heat map, glowing brightest where people are predicted to look most, a Visual Sequence diagram showing how her left eye is likely to get attention first and, at right, a Regions of Interest (ROI) diagram circling the areas that get noticed in initial 3-to-5 seconds, with the areas not delineated likely ignored in the same time period.

Screen Shot 2019-06-24 at 11.45.10 PMAnother remarkable thing about viewing Mona is watching all the people from all over the world watch her – it’s a scene, as the NYT recently reported. that suggests how new technologies, iPhones and the internet, have changed how we view art. Now taking your picture with Mona becomes as, if not more, important than actually studying the painting up close. Publishing books about the selfie experience is growing too, with selfie-books featuring Mona for sale at the Louvre book store.

It all makes a good deal of sense when you think about it, looking at Mona helps us see ourselves. And so, looking at Mona with our own face in the image becomes doubly engaging! We’re a social species built for communicating; our survival depends on the well-honed ability to instantly look for and respond to faces and their diverse expressions.

And what shows up in art, shows up in architecture. See the face-like facades below from the greater Boston area. The materials may change, the purpose of the structures are different too, but what catches our attention stays consistent because it’s what we most need to see. We evolved with one brain, we don’t have another one, and it’s specifically wired for social engagement. You simply can’t build community, another requirement for a social species’ survival, without it.

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Because of our Brain Architecture – We love Buildings that Look like Us!      ©geneticsofdesign.com

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Interested in Biometrics+Buildings? Come to a Brainstorming Session June 30, 2019!

Here’s the info:2019June30-BrainstormUser Experience-3

This event is free; we’ll be meeting in the Hooper-Lee-Nichols house, the second oldest in Cambridge, MA, just outside of Harvard Square at noon. Should be fun!

RSVP: annsmail4@gmail.com +/or heidi@pribell.com, if you can attend.

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